The Journey – Hapū, Iwi, Crown
Below is a brief timeline of some key events that have marked our journey as Hapū and Iwi on both a regional and national scale with the Crown.
Today Ngā Hapū o Te Ahuahu are working on understanding who we are as a regional hapū grouping and what stage one of the Te Arawhiti process means to us.
2018 – The Crown creates Te Arawhiti -The Office for Māori Crown Relations.
2019 – Ngā Hapū o Ngāpuhi hold hui to help decide what and how they will organise themselves.
2020 – Hapū from Kaikohe/Taiamai/Waimate North start to hold hui.
2021 – February, a hui is held at Ngawha Marae with Te Arawhiti explaining stage 1 process to hapū on achieving a mandate.
2021 – March, a hui at Rāwhitiroa Marae accepts the name of Ngā Hapū o Te Ahuahu as representing the related and connected hapū that our two marae, Parawhenua and Rawhitiroa, exist upon.
2009 – Tuhoronuku is established as an entity by the rūnanga with a roadshow for Ngāpuhi to vote for Tuhoronuku to manage Treaty claims and settlements.
2011 – Tuhoronuku declares a mandate with 76% yes vote.
2019 – After many challenges to Tuhoronuku as the Iwi mandated authority, Hapū vote NO to Tuhoronuku and Crown finally accepts.
From the Maori Fisheries Settlement, the Crown guidelines for fisheries settlement money to be paid to tribal legal entities only. Tribal rūnanga were created and registered across the country as requested by the Crown as it suited their business model.
This created conflicts as we : 1) Operate day to day on hapū level, not iwi. 2) Differences in hapū boundaries (inland vs coastal) raised distribution percentages problematic and therefore disputed. 3) Some hapū challenged the Crown on these points applying to be legally recognised as an ‘iwi’ so to manage their own Fisheries Settlement.
1989 – Te Rūnanga a Iwi o Ngāpuhi was registered as a charitable trust. Now manages Fisheries Settlement money allocated to its boundaries.
2007 – Ngāpuhi Asset Holding Company Limited, also referred to as ‘NAHC’ was setup as the commercial entity, ensuring the financial future of Ngāpuhi and facilitating opportunities for regional growth and development.
Māori customary fishing rights were secured and guaranteed by Article 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi 1840 between Queen Victoria representing the English Crown and Māori tribes.
Over many years Māori claimed the Crown had breached Treaty fishing rights through a series of actions and the introduction of the Quota Management System (QMS) in 1986, which removed statutory recognition of Māori customary rights to fishing and fisheries.
1989 – 1992 Māori Fisheries Commission setup to manage fishery settlement.
1989 – the Crown and Māori negotiators agreed on an interim settlement, which was given effect by the Māori Fisheries Act 1989.
1992 – 2004 Māori Fisheries Commission becomes the Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission.
2004 – Te Ohu Kai Moana Trust and Te Ohu Kai Moana Trustee Limited replace Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission.
In the 1970s, Māori protest about unresolved Treaty grievances was increasing and sometimes taking place outside the law.
1975 – The Waitangi Tribunal was established by the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975.
1985 – Parliament allowed the Tribunal to investigate events dating back to 1840.
Hundreds of historical claims were made. The Tribunal grouped these claims into districts, and researching and hearing claims in a specific area is known as a district inquiry. The district inquiry process is nearing completion.
1987 – Māori Language Act
1995 – The first major settlement of historical confiscation, or raupatu, claims was agreed to by the Crown with Waikato-Tainui.
2008 – Parliament removed the Tribunal’s power to register new historical claims.
1863 – Land confiscation law passed. This law allowed for the confiscation of land – without compensation – from any North Island tribe said to be ‘in rebellion against Her Majesty’s authority’.
1867 – Native Schools Act says English should be the only language used in the education of Māori children. We are now beaten at school for speaking Māori.
1867 – Māori Representation Act, provided four Māori seats that only men could stand for.
1893 – Women’s Suffrage Petition. Māori women actively participated in this, achieving the vote along with the ability to stand in Māori seats.
1907 – Tohunga Suppression Act intended to stop people using traditional Māori healing practices, another law that forced assimilation.
1913 – Ninety percent of Māori school children are native Māori speakers.
1914 – First World War begins, 2227 Māori serve in the Māori (Pioneer) Battalion.
1918 – Influenza epidemic arrives, devastating our communities with high fatalities over a short period.
1939 – Second World War begins, nearly 16,000 Māori registered for service and served with distinction both at home and abroad. 20% served in the 28th Māori Battalion.
1940s – Māori urban migration begins.
1950s – Māori urban migration continues. Whānau are placed in non-Māori suburbs, preventing the reproduction of Māori communities and speech patterns.
1961 – Hunn Report describes the Māori language as a relic of ancient Māori life.
Between the 1840s and the 1870s British and colonial forces fought to open up the interior of the North Island for settlement in conflicts that became known as the New Zealand Wars. Sovereignty was contested on the ground despite the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, and Māori became less willing to sell land to the rapidly growing European population. In 1860 Māori held 80% of the land but by 1880 with various Acts passed to cater to colonisation, we were reduced to 40%. By 2000 little under 4% remains.
6th February 1840 – Signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (The Treaty of Waitangi).
1844 – Hōne Heke cuts down the flagstaff on Maiki Hill above Kororāreka (Russell) for the first time. Originally donated by Heke, the flagstaff was intended to fly the flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand. The British shifted it from Waitangi to Kororāreka to fly a different flag.
1845 – Northern Wars follow for 6 months from Kororareka, Te Ahuahu, Ohaeawai, and Ruapekapeka.
1850s – ‘Māori were faced with increasing numbers of British settlers, political marginalisation and growing demand from the Crown to purchase their lands.
1853 – The promotion of the idea of a Māori King began.
1858 – The first king, Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, accepted the mantle after many hui, suggestions and refusals.
1858 – Bay of Islands Settlement Act
1860 – Pōtatau Te Wherowhero passes, his son Tāwhiao becomes king and leads the Kingitanga during the land confiscations that followed.
Our countries first flag was chosen in Waitangi by northern Chiefs and their followers.
‘The need for a flag arose as trade grew with the colony in New South Wales. Many Māori leaders and entrepreneurs had already been trading with and visiting the colony in NSW for some decades. In 1830, Hokianga chief Patuone and his relative Taonui sailed to Sydney aboard the Sir George Murray, first European-style ship built in New Zealand, and part-owned by Patuone and Taonui, who provided the timber. Upon arrival on its maiden voyage, the ship and cargo were impounded by customs officials for breaching British maritime navigation laws, which required all trading ships to fly a national flag.’
‘He Whakaputanga can be translated as “an emergence”. The document itself consisted of four articles. It asserted the independence of Nu Tireni (Aotearoa New Zealand) under the rule of the “United Tribes of New Zealand”. All sovereign power and authority in the land (“Ko te Kingitanga ko te mana i te w[h]enua”) resided with the chiefs “in their collective capacity”. The chiefs present agreed to meet annually at Waitangi to make laws. In return for the “friendship and protection” that Māori were to give British subjects in New Zealand, the chiefs asked King William IV “to continue to be the parent [matua] of their infant State”, and requested he “become its Protector from all attempts upon its independence”.’
20th March 1834 – Te Kara o Te Whakaminenga o ngā hapū o Niu Tīreni – The flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand.
28th October 1835 – Signing of He Whakaputanga o Te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni